Merck, Sharpe & Dome (MSD)

Today's Merck is a global health care leader working to help the world be well. Merck is known as MSD outside the United States and Canada. Through our prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies, and animal health products, we work with customers and operate in more than 140 countries to deliver innovative health solutions. We also demonstrate our commitment to increasing access to health care through far-reaching policies, programs and partnerships.

MSD Animal Health, known as Merck Animal Health in the United States and Canada, is the global animal health business unit of MSD. Through its commitment to the Science of Healthier Animals, MSD Animal Health offers veterinarians, farmers, pet owners and governments one of the widest range of veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccines and health management solutions and services. MSD Animal Health is dedicated to preserving and improving the health, well-being and performance of animals. It invests extensively in dynamic and comprehensive R&D resources and a modern, global supply chain. MSD Animal Health is present in more than 50 countries, while its products are available in some 150 markets. For more information, visit or connect with us on LinkedIn.

Role of MSD in the VAC2VAC project

MSD is one of the industry partners participating in the VAC2VAC initiative.

MSD will support VAC2VAC by contributing technical, scientific and regulatory expertise to the research, development, validation and implementation of non-animal methods for Quality Control testing, as well as by providing materials and reagents needed in the development of alternative non-animals methods for consistency testing.

Participation in the VAC2VAC initiative underlines the company's commitment to the philosophy of using the best scientific methodologies and animal alternatives, and to promote the principles and practice of the 3 Rs - Replacement, Reduction, Refinement.

Partner representatives

Imke KrossImke Kross is a trained Veterinarian, who received her PhD in Molecular Biology in Berlin in 1993. She has been working in the areas of vaccine development, Quality Control of Vaccines and Biological Assay development and improvement for 20 years in Intervet International, Intervet Schering-Plough AH and MSD AH. She has been involved in the 3Rs for approximately 10 years, in particular in the development of alternative methods to replace animal testing for Quality Control testing.





Chris FarrellChris Farrell is a Biochemist who received his PhD in Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, in Baltimore, MD, USA in 2005. After a brief postdoctoral Fellowship at Princeton University, NJ, USA, he began his career at Merck in West Point, PA, USA. Chris has been working in the Vaccine Bioprocess R&D group, specializing in biophysical characterization of vaccines to support clinical and Pre-clinical development. Chris is industry co-chair for WP1.





M. Hartmann will contribute technical expertise to Work Package 1, J. Divelbess, H. Glansbeek and C. Vester will contribute to Work Package 2, P. Vermeij and Urs Bruderer to Work Package 3 and 4. M. Kaashoek will contribute Regulatory expertise to Work Package 6.